Moving smiles: The role of dynamic components for the perception of the genuineness of smiles
Eva Krumhuber, Arvid Kappas
Journal of Nonverbal Behavior 29 (1), 3-24, 2005
Three experiments were conducted to examine whether the temporal dynamics of Duchenne-smiles influenced the perception of smile authenticity. Realistic computer-generated Duchenne-smiles that varied in their onset- and offset-durations (Experiment 1), or only in their offset-duration (Experiment 2), or in both their onset- and apex-durations (Experiment 3), were created using Poser 4 software. Perceived genuineness varied monotonically with the duration of each manipulated dynamic component. The results are in accordance with Ekman and Friesen’s (1982) observations regarding the duration of smiles of enjoyment, which suggest that each dynamic component has a distinct duration range that can influence the perceived genuineness of smiles.
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Therapist empathy, genuineness, and warmth and patient therapeutic outcome.
Charles B Truax, Donald G Wargo, Jerome D Frank, Stanley D Imber, Carolyn C Battle, Rudolf Hoehn-Saric, Earl H Nash, Anthony R Stone
Journal of Consulting Psychology 30 (5), 395, 1966
A study aimed at cross-validating previous research suggesting that the levels of the therapist's accurate empathy, nonpossessive warmth, and genuineness were causally related to the degree of patient improvement or deterioration. An equal number of" good" or" poor" therapy prospects were randomly assigned to 4 resident psychiatrists (10 patients each) for 4 mo. of psychotherapy. Results tended to confirm the importance of the 3 therapeutic conditions in combination and of empathy and genuineness separately. Negative findings for separate analysis of therapist's warmth were interpreted in terms of its negative correlation with empathy and genuineness in the present sample. On the overall measure for all patients, therapists providing high therapeutic conditions had 90% patient improvement while those providing lower conditions had 50% improvement.(17 ref.)(PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)